ISSN: 0899-0220 (print), 1369-1651 (electronic)
Somatosens Mot Res, Early Online: 1–6
2014 Informa UK Ltd. DOI: 10.3109/08990220.2014.882303
An ocean full of BARRELS: Barrels XXVI meeting report
Philip Chu
, Chia-Chien Chen
, & Joshua C. Brumberg
Neuropsychology PhD Program (Psychology), The Graduate Center, CUNY, New York, NY, USA,
Department of Molecular, Cell, and Developmental
Biology, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA, USA,
Department of Psychology, Queens College, CUNY, Flushing, NY, USA, and
Neuroscience PhD Program (Biology), The Graduate Center, CUNY, New York, NY, USA
The 26th annual Barrels meeting was convened on the campus of the University of California
San Diego, not far from the shores of the Pacific Ocean. The meeting focused on three main
themes: the structure and function of the thalamic reticular nucleus, the neurovasculature
system and its role in brain metabolism, and the origins and functions of cortical GABAergic
interneurons. In addition to the major themes, there were short talks, a data blitz, and a poster
session which highlighted the diversity and quality of the research ongoing in the rodent
whisker-to-barrel system.
Barrel cortex, GABAergic interneurons,
neurovasculature, thalamic reticular
nucleus, whiskers
Received 18 December 2013
Accepted 20 December 2013
Published online 6 February 2014
The 26th annual Barrels meeting was hosted in the Atkinson
Auditorium on the campus of the University of California
San Diego in sunny La Jolla, California on Thursday,
7 November and Friday, 8 November 2013. The meeting
witnessed 94 attendees from 11 countries being presented
with the latest findings in the rodent whisker-to-barrel system.
The conference focused on three main themes: the structure
and function of the thalamic reticular nucleus, the neurovas-
culature system and its role in brain metabolism, and the
origins and functions of cortical GABAergic interneurons.
For a detailed listing of the talks and speakers, please consult
the Appendix.
Thalamic reticular nucleus
The first day opened with Chris Moore (Brown University)
moderating a session on the synaptic and circuit dynamics
of the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN). He reminded the
audience of the anatomical location of the TRN and how
from its central position it can modulate many aspects of brain
processing such as attention and rhythmic oscillations. As a
final note he pointed out that traditionally the TRN had been
assumed to be a monolithic structure but recent data have
shown that not all TRN neurons respond in the same manner
to identical stimuli.
The first speaker Michael Beierlein (University of Texas
Medical School at Houston) highlighted the differential
impacts of cholinergic input into the TRN from the basal
forebrain vs. the brainstem. Based on anatomical data the
basal forebrain cholinergic inputs should be considered
similar to classical synapses such as those made by
glutamatergic inputs and not like diffuse inputs that are
traditional of neuromodulators. The TRN is one of the few
brain structures that receive cholinergic input from both the
nucleus basalis of meynert (NBM) and the cholinergic
brainstem nuclei. In a series of studies it was shown that
following stimulation of NBM afferents there is activation
of a fast inward nicotinic response followed by a long
outward muscarinic response. In some cases cholinergic input
is sufficient to induce post-synaptic action potentials. In a
second set of studies the reciprocal connection between
TRN and the ventral basal thalamic complex (VB) was
investigated. It was concluded that TRN inputs onto VB
neurons showed strong divergence influencing many VB
neurons whereas VB connections to TRN show little
divergence. The next speaker, Anita Lu
thi (University of
Lausanne), highlighted how single channel conductances in
the TRN can impact sleep behavior. Initially, the differences
between human and rodent sleep were detailed, with an
explanation on how rodents exhibit much more frequent
transitions and how sleep has been shown to be important
in synaptic development and learning. Using a synthesis
of whole cell and field recordings in wild type and transgenic
animals it was shown that the interplay of the calcium
channel Ca
3.3 and the Ca
-dependent K
channel SK2
regulate the bursting behavior of TRN cells. Specifically,
in Ca
3.3 knockout animals there are fewer bursts and in
SK2 overexpressing animals there are more bursts observed
in TRN neurons. The impact on sleep behavior was assessed
in vivo and it was seen that SK2 overexpressing mice
showed fewer transitions during their sleep phase and that
they were harder to arouse in response to auditory tones.
Correspondence: J. C. Brumberg, PhD, Department of Psychology,
Queens College, CUNY, 65–30 Kissena Boulevard, Flushing, NY 11367,
USA. Tel: +1 718 997 3541. Fax: +1 718 997 3257. E-mail:
Somatosens Mot Res Downloaded from by Queens College on 02/06/14
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Finally, Michael Halassa (Massachusetts Institute of
Technology) presented data from in vivo recordings from
TRN cells. Using optogenetic techniques it was shown that
when TRN cells are activated they evoke bursting behavior
in ventral posterior medial (VPM) thalamic cells. In awake
behaving animals it was demonstrated that some TRN cell
firings are correlated with ongoing spindle behavior and
some are not. Some TRN neurons showed correlated firing
to behavioral tests, while others did not. The latter two results
taken together provide evidence that TRN neurons have
heterogeneous functions.
Short talks
Following a short break in the rejuvenating sun, Matthew
Diamond (SISSA, Trieste, Italy) moderated the f irst set of
short (15 min) talks. First up was Carsten Pfef fer (University
of California San Diego) whose talk addressed the issue of
inhibition of inhibitory cells within the mouse visual cortex.
Using genetic techniques to label distinct GABAergic
populations along with an adenovir us tagged with channel
rhodopsin, the interconnectivity of these cells was addressed.
Using single-cell polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from the
nuclei of the recorded cells it was possible to identify five
classes of GABAergic neurons in layers 2/3 and 5. In sum,
vasointestinal peptide (VIP)
neurons predominantly inhib-
ited somatostatin
neurons, parvalbumin
neurons inhibited
other parvalbumin
neurons and pyramidal cells whereas
cells inhibited all classes of cells except
neurons. Next, Robin Wagener (University
of Medicine, Goettingen, Germany) showed that in the
severely disorganized cortex of the reeler mouse it was still
possible to have intact thalamocortical inputs. Using mole-
cular markers that differentiate cortical laminae it was shown
that thalamocortical axons target layer 4 fated neurons and
using optogenetics it was possible to show that these synapses
can be activated and lead to columnar-like activation in
the reeler mouse. The short talk session was concluded by
Hong Li (Yale University) who demonstrated that the proper
development of barrel cortex requires thalamocortical neuro-
transmission. A double knockout mouse was constructed
where glutamate receptors VGlut1 and VGlut2 were deleted
and it was shown that somatotopy was disrupted when the
resultant brains were stained with Nissl or the thalamocortical
afferents were analyzed despite the fact that within these
animals the trigeminal and thalamic nuclei develop normally.
Further analysis of these animals showed that layer 4 was
reduced in width and it had fewer stellate cells.
Following lunch Dirk Schubert (Radboud University,
the Netherlands) moderated another session of short talks.
Leading off was Matthew Diamond (SISSA, Trieste, Italy)
who defined the issue of what the rodent is sensing through its
whiskers in a neuroethological context, specifically can it
when living in underground tunnels detect vibrations made
by predators above the ground. To that end, a behavioral
test was devised where different vibrations were presented to
the left vs. right whisker pads which the rat was trained to
discriminate. Rats were able to make discriminations at delays
of up to 8 s (humans could perform a comparable task with
delays up to 12 s). Recordings from anterior motor cor tical
regions (M2) showed that some neurons responded to the
go signal and based on their firing rates it was possible to
predict the behavior of the animal. Matthew Evans
(University of Sheffield, UK) considered issues concerning
how the firing rates of cortical neurons can be interpreted
based on different encoding schemes. A key concept was
the idea that sensory systems are tuned to the state of the
environment they are interacting with. To attack this problem
a four-stage program was proposed of measurement (done by
mechanoreceptors), preprocessing (neuronal tuning curve
distributions), representation (neuronal tuning curve shapes),
and inference (cortical outputs). Following the short talks,
Joshua C. Brumberg (Queens College, CUNY) moderated
the annual data blitz where attendees presented their latest
results in quick secession before the meeting adjourned to the
poster session and finally an alfresco dinner by the sea.
Neurovasculature coupling
The second day of Barrels XXVI began with an introduction
and then moderation by David Kleinfeld on the topic of
neurovascular structure and control of brain metabolism.
Serge Charpak (University Paris V) began the first talk of
the morning with work demonstrating the ability of 2-photon
phosphorescence lifetime microscopy to image the partial
pressure of oxygen (PO
) at micron-scale resolution in the
olfactory bulb of rats. He found that PO
levels peak in
individual erythrocytes and that PO
levels between two
peaks represents the PO
levels existent in the neuropil.
He presented in vivo data from chronically imaged rats and
found that sniffing an odor selectively resulted in a PO
decrease prior to functional hyperemia in the nerve layer
of the glomeruli. He emphasized that the dip that is seen in
functional imaging techniques prior to hyperemia, such as
those seen in fMRI, is reflected in the micron scale within
capillaries and suggested that measuring the prehyperemia
‘‘dip’’ could be a way to gain higher temporal resolution
in functional imaging studies. The second talk of the day was
given by Anna Devor (University of California San Diego
and the Harvard Medical School) who began by noting the
overarching goal of using model systems to understand the
human brain. Using 2-photon microscopy she presented
data that blood vessel dilation speed is specific to cortical
depth and branch order. Specifically, that deeper cortical
layers dilate faster than superficial layers, emphasizing that
although layer 4 is thought to be the most metabolically
active, it does not have the fastest dilating vessels. It was then
demonstrated that local glutamate application caused dilation
of vessels in layer 1 and that astrocyte calcium signaling was
locked to vascular dilation patterns. Interestingly, astrocyte
activity was shown to peak after maximum vasodilatation,
and thus astrocytes appear too slow to control vasculature
behavior. Further, using an IP
R2-knockout mouse, in which
astrocyte signaling is blocked in response to mGluR activity,
it was shown that dilation still occurred. Taken together these
data suggest that astrocytes are not playing a direct role
in regulating vasodilation. She then went on to propose a
hypothesis of local signaling within compartments of neurons
that may selectively secrete prostaglandins. Next, Catherine
Hall (University College London) differentiated the role of
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pericytes on capillaries as opposed to the smooth muscle
surrounding arterioles. An introduction into pericyte physiol-
ogy showed that depolarizing activity constricts them
and their associated capillary which they ensheathe. Using
time sequence videography it was possible to follow the
sequence of propagation starting from capillary dilation to
arteriole. Following ischemic conditions of low cerebral
blood flow (CBF) a transient rebound to high levels of CBF
occurs, which is then followed by a prolonged decrease in
CBF. Using a cocktail of glutamate antagonists that prevent
pericyte death and their prolonged contraction during
ischemia, she showed that pericytes regulate the prolonged
period of low CBF after ischemia. The final presentation
for the morning session was given by Philbert S. Tsai
(University of California San Diego), who showcased a
method of reconstructing all the vasculature within the
barrel cortex using all-optical histology. Using a community
analysis algorithm, he demonstrated that in contrast to
classical work from Thomas Woolsey, microvasculatures
form a continuous network within the barrel cor tex and that
the high vein to artery ratio provides low resistance sinks to
prevent lateral flow in the vasculature. Their data were
verified against in vivo data and modeled to show that passive
flow dynamics can explain much of the cerebral vasculature
flow without most of the active processes. Then, in response
to a previous speaker, Serge Charpak stepped forward to
present a new GcAMP mouse crossed with a connexin
reporter line and showed preliminary data that astrocytes
can in fact respond quickly, but made no argument that their
activity is coupled to the vasculature.
Short talks
A short discussion and coffee break was followed by short
platform talks introduced and moderated by Robert Sachdev
(Yale University School of Medicine). Christian L. Ebbesen
(Humboldt University) began the session by sharing his
results using tetrode recordings to show changes in vibrissa
motor cortex (VMC) during social facial touching among
rats. Specifically, he presented findings of decreased level of
activity in the VMC during social facial touching, where the
effect was greater for males than for females and stimulating
the VMC decreased social facial touching. Jerry L. Chen
(University of Zurich) followed up by presenting data on the
relationship between long-range projecting neurons and local
circuits in vivo using 2-photon calcium imaging and viral
retrograde tracers injected into S1. Using the go, no-go and
pole location discrimination behavioral tasks, he found
that S1 ! S2 projecting neurons show more touch-related
responses during texture discrimination and S1 ! M1 pro-
jecting neurons showed greater touch-related responses
during object localization. It was also demonstrated that
some cells could discriminate between hits vs. misses during
discrimination tasks and that depended on whether the
forward projection was to S2 or M1. The final short platform
talk of the day was given by Bettina Joachimsthaler (Werner
Reichardt Center for Integrative Neuroscience) who used
in vivo 2-photon imaging of dendritic spines during a classic
eye-blinking task using a whisker stimulus as the conditioned
stimulus (CS). She found that the CS whisker column showed
a decrease in absolute spine number and increase in spine
After the lunch break, the short platform talks were
moderated by Bryan (Mac) Hooks (Janelia Farm Research
Campus). Robert Sachdev (Yale University School of
Medicine) presented data demonstrating that although net-
work activity and local field potentials fluctuated rhythmi-
cally, the spontaneous activities were not directly correlated
with changes in blood flow. It was determined that
spontaneous neuronal activity and blood flow rate are not
necessarily coupled in linear fashion. Alan Urban (INSERM)
followed by introducing whole brain functional sonography, a
non-invasive imaging modality that is based on micro-
Doppler effect that offers both high spatial and temporal
resolutions. Using this imaging technique, it was demon-
strated that stimulation of the whiskers can change the
cerebral blood volume (CBV) by 20%. Using the correlative
map to investigate the anatomical functionality of the barrel
cortex, the changes in CBV were positively correlated with
the number of pulses and was also shown to be temporally
specific to stimulation. Next, Simon Musall (University of
Zurich) showed that using an optogenetics approach, adapta-
tion in rat barrel cortex is frequency dependent. It was shown
that rats can detect and discriminate trains of light pulses
with high reliability. When there is adaptation in whisker
response, the discrimination rate is decreased and when the
light-activated adaption is absent, the discrimination rate is
increased. Therefore, it was suggested that the adaption
in pulses might be responsible for desensitization in tactile
detection. Last, Simon Peron (Janelia Farm Research
Campus) showed that, using the large-scale calcium imaging
method, it is possible to quantitatively understand the neural
coding of behaving mice. Some neurons exhibit touch-related
activity, while some fire all the time. Approximately 25% of
the neurons stay relatively silent, while 30–40% of neurons
show touch-related activities in layers 2/3, 4, and 5, and
the rest were classified as neurons responding to whisking.
Neuronal activity was sparse in layers 2/3 and denser for layer
5 that responded to touch, and a surpr isingly low (55%)
percentage of neurons in the principal whisker were
responsible for coding of touch-related activities, and the
touch representation rate declined as a function away from
the principal whisker. The session concluded with a vigorous
discussion, followed by a coffee break.
GABAergic interneurons
The final afternoon session focused on the origin and role
of cortical interneurons which was moderated and introduced
by Jochen Staiger (Georg-August-Universita
t). He reminded
the audience about the birth of inhibitory neurons in the
medial ganglion eminence and their long migrator y route
during development into the cerebral cortex. The audience
received a very comprehensive review on the many categories
of inhibitory neurons regarding the heterogeneity in their
molecular profiles and functional roles in the cortex.
The initial speaker was Gordon Fishel (New York
University), who showed input-specific control of cortical
circuit assembly, especially regarding three subtypes of
inhibitory neurons: VIP
, calretinin
, and reelin
, and how
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the differential expression of these inhibitory neurons alters
the morphological development of neurogliaform in the
superficial layers of the cerebral cortex. It was found that
silencing reelin positive cells during the first postnatal week
led to specific and significant mor phological alterations on
the neurogliaforms, while silencing VIP
inhibitory neurons
had minimal effects. Further more, it was determined that
this morphological development is also dependent on proper
sensory and glutamatergic input. This was based on the
finding that whisker plucking resulted in alterations of the
morphology of neurogliaform cells, particularly retraction
of their dendrites, and this result was mimicked by selectively
knocking out the NR1 subunit of the NMDA receptor, and
administering NMDA in the whisker-plucked mice rescued
these morphological alterations. Last, it was shown that
the loss of the NR1 subunit changes the afferent drive from
thalamus, and these morphological changes of interneurons
may result from the loss of selective thalamocortical
connectivity mediated by nerve-growth factor.
The second afternoon speaker Mingshan Xue
(University of California San Diego) shifted the focus from
barrel cortex to visual cortex. He began by reminding the
audience about the balance of excitatory and inhibitory (E/I
ratio) networks within the cerebral cortex. By investigating the
layer 4 to layer 2/3 connection, he established that the E/I ratio
is evenly matched and strongly cor related across networks,
suggesting the strength of inhibition matches the strength of
excitation. Then, by investigating c-fos
-GFP neurons and
comparing to neighboring fos
neurons, it was possible to
understand how sensory activity alters the excitatory and
inhibitory balance in the presence of visual information. It was
found that out of the many subtypes of inhibitory neurons, the
interneurons are the main inhibitory drivers
responsible for equalizing the E/I ratio among layer 2/3
pyramidal neurons. Further, by genetically manipulating
the excitability of pyramidal neurons it was determined
that each excitatory neuron can regulate the presynaptic
inhibitory output it receives in an activity-dependent and
cell-autonomous manner. This effect is limited to
connections between excitatory neurons to parvalbumin
inhibitory neurons, as this activity-dependent regulation is
not seen to affect excitatory neuron to somatostatin
The final afternoon speaker was Shankar
Sachidhanandam (Ecole Polytechnique Federale de
Lausanne, Switzerland) who presented data on how inhibitory
neuronal activity can influence whisker detection sensitivity.
Mice were trained to associate the detection of whisker
stimuli to licking of a liquid reward. Optogenetic stimuli
were used to substitute for physical whisker stimulation, and
pharmacological inactivation in barrel cortex blocked this
whisker-stimulation associated reward behavior. Through
whole cell recording in behaving animals, it was determined
that the secondary late depolar ization accompanied by spiking
in excitatory neurons was strongly correlated with hit trials
compared to misses. Finally, it was demonstrated that
optogenetically activated inhibitory circuit, mediated by
(PV) interneurons, can inactivate this late
phase of excitation. It was concluded that there are two
portions of excitatory neuronal activity: the early phase that is
responsible for the detection of the stimuli and the later
phase that is responsible for the post-stimulus-related
behavioral response. Furthermore, the inhibitory interneurons,
particularly PV
neurons, mediate the response tuning curve
in these excitatory neuronal activities.
The meeting adjourned with a commitment to continue the
longest running satellite meeting and convene again prior to
next year’s Society for Neuroscience meeting in Washington,
DC. The 27th annual Barrels meeting will return to the
birthplace of the Barrels, Johns Hopkins University in
Baltimore, Maryland.
The events hosting was facilitated by Dr David Kleinfeld and
Ms Nancy Steinmetz. The 2013 meeting was co-organized by
Drs Joshua C. Brumberg, David Kleinfeld, Daniel O’Connor,
Robert Sachdev, and Jochen Staiger. The organization is
indebted to the services of Nancy Steinmetz and Kathy
Declaration of interest
The Barrels meeting was generously supported by NINDS
(1R13NS065167-01). The authors report no conflicts of
interest. The authors alone are responsible for the content and
writing of this article.
Appendix: BARRELS XXVI schedule
Thursday, 7 November
9:00–9:05 Welcome
: Joshua C. Brumberg, Queens College, CUNY
9:05–11:00 Synaptic and circuit dynamics of the thalamic reticular nucleus
9:05–9:15 Introduction/overview
: Chris Moore, Brown University
9:15–9:45 Michael Beierlein, University of Texas Medical School at Houston
Cholinergic synaptic inputs to TRN trigger thalamic network activity
9:45–10:15 Anita Lu
thi, University of Lausanne
SK channel overexpression enhances thalamic spindle activity and consolidates sleep
10:15–10:45 Michael Halassa, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
State-dependent organization of thalamic reticular microcircuits
10:45–11:00 Discussion
(continued )
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11:00–11:30 Coffee Break
11:30–12:30 Short Platform Talks 1
: Matthew Diamond, SISSA, Trieste, Italy
11:30–11:45 Carsten K. Pfeffer
, Mingshan Xue
, Miao He
, Z. Josh Huang
, and Massimo Scanziani
1, 2
Inhibition of inhibition in cortex: The logic of connections between molecularly distinct inter neurons
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA,
Center for Neural
Circuits and Behavior, Neurobiology Section and Depar tment of Neuroscience, University of California San Diego,
La Jolla, California, USA, and
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York, USA
11:45–12:00 Robin J. Wagener, Mirko Witte, and Jochen F. Staiger
Intact thalamocortical target selection in the severely disorganized neocortex of the reeler mouse
t, Gottingen, Germany
12:00–12:15 Hong Li
, Sofia Fertuzinhos
, Ethan Mohns
, Thomas S. Hnasko
, Matthijs Verhage
, Robert Edwards
Nenad Sestan
, and Michael C. Crair
Laminar and columnar development of barrel cortex relies on thalamocortical neurotransmission
Department of Neurobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA,
Departments of Neurology and
Physiology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA,
Present address: Department of
Neurosciences, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA,
Department of Functional Genomics/Clinical
Genetics, Center for Neurogenomics and Cognitive Research (CNCR), Vrije Uiniversiteit (VU) and VU Medical Center,
Amsterdam, the Netherlands,
Kavli Institute for Neuroscience, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT,
USA, and
Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA
12:15–12:30 Discussion
12:30–2:30 Lunch Break
2:30–3:00 Short Platform Talks 2
: Dirk Schubert, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre
2:30–2:45 Arash Fassihi
, Athena Akrami
, Vahid Esmaeili
, and Matthew E. Diamond
Vibrissal working memory: Psychometrics and neuronal activity
SISSA, Trieste, Italy and
Princeton University, USA
2:45–3:00 Matthew H. Evans and Tony J. Prescott
Efficient and sparse coding in the whisker system
University of Sheffield, UK
3:00–3:15 S. Peron, V. Iyer, Z. Guo, C. Guo, and K. Svoboda
The brain activity map of mouse barrel cor tex
HHMI/Janelia Farm Research Campus, Ashburn, VA, USA
3:15–3:40 Data Blitz
: Joshua C. Brumberg, Queens College, CUNY
3:40–6:30 Poster Session
6:30 Dinner
Friday, 8 November
8:45–11:00 Neurovascular structure and control of brain metabolism
8:45–8:55 Introduction/moderator
: David Kleinfeld, University of California San Diego
8:55–9:25 Serge Charpak, University Paris V
Imaging brain activity from capillaries
9:25–9:55 Anna Devor, University of California San Diego & Harvard Medical School
How to build a hemodynamic response from scratch?
9:55–10:25 Catherine Hall, University College London
Regulation of brain energy supply by capillaries
10:25–10:55 Philbert S. Tsai, University of California San Diego
Blood flow and angio-architecture in relation to the vibrissae barrels
10:55–11:10 Discussion
11:10–11:30 Coffee Break
11:30–12:45 Short Platform Talks 3
: Robert Sachdev, Yale University School of Medicine
11:30–11:45 Christian L. Ebbesen and Michael Brecht
Suppression of rat vibrissa motor cortex activity dur ing social facial touch
Bernstein Center for Computational Neuroscience, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany
11:45–12:00 Jerry L. Chen
, Stefano Carta
, Joana Soldado-Magraner
, Bernard L. Schneider
, and Fritjof Helmchen
Task-dependent transmission of activity in mouse barrel cortex
Brain Research Institute, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland,
Neuroscience Center Zurich, University of Zurich/
ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland,
Institute of Neuroinformatics, University of Zurich/ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland,
Brain Mind Institute, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), EPFL SV BMI LEN, Lausanne,
12:00–12:15 B. Joachimsthaler
, D. Brugger
, A. Skodras
, and C. Schwarz
Structural plasticity on the level of dendritic spines underlying classical eyeblink conditioning in mouse barrel cortex
Werner Reichardt Center for Integrative Neuroscience, Tuebingen, Germany,
Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research,
Tuebingen, Germany,
Graduate School of Neural and Behavioral Science, Tuebingen, Germany, and
German Center
for Neurodegenerative Disease, Tuebingen, Germany
12:15–12:30 Discussion
12:30–1:45 Lunch Break
1:45–3:00 Short Platform Talks 4
: Bryan M. Hooks, Janelia Farm Research Campus
(continued )
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1:45–2:00 Robert Sachdev, Yuguo Yu, Peter Herman, Basav Sanganahalli, David McCormick, and Fahmeed Hyder
State-dependent correlations between spontaneous neocortical activity and cerebral blood flow
Department of Neurobiology, Diagnostic Radiology, and Biomedical Engineering, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven,
2:00–2:15 A. Urban, M. Heidmann, C. Brunner, and J. Rossier
Chronic imaging at high spatiotemporal resolution using whole brain functional sonography
Centre de Psychiatrie et Neurosciences, INSERM U894, Optogenetics and Brain Imaging, Paris, France
2:15–2:30 S. Musall
, W. von der Behrens
, J. Mayrhofer
, B. Weber
, F. Helmchen
, and F. Haiss
Impact of response adaptation on stimulus perception: Sensory stimulation versus optogenetic activation of pr imary
somatosensory cortex
Institute for Brain Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland,
Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology,
University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland,
Institute of Neuroinformatics, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, and
Medical Faculty, RWTH University, Aachen, Germany
2:30–2:45 S. Peron, V. Iyer, Z. Guo, C. Guo, and K. Svoboda
The brain activity map of mouse barrel cor tex
HHMI/Janelia Farm Research Campus, Ashburn, VA, USA
2:45–3:00 Discussion
3:00–3:15 Coffee Break
3:15–5:30 Cortical GABAergic interneurons: Origins, circuit maturation and unveiling of functions
3:00–3:10 Introduction/overview
: Jochen Staiger, Georg-August-Universita
3:10–3:40 Gordon Fishel, New York University
The role of intrinsic and activity-regulated gene expression in the specification and maturation of cor tical interneurons
3:40–4:10 Z. Josh Huang, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratories
Cortical GABAergic interneurons: Origins, circuit maturation and functions getting unveiled
4:10–4:40 Shankar Sachidhanandam, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne
Gating of sensory perception by parvalbumin-expressing GABAergic neurons in mouse barrel cortex
4:40–5:00 Discussion
5:00 Adjourn
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